Published 2015-10-01
Abraham Moeljono Danarto Danarto


Objective: To determine the association between Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1) expression and metastasis in prostate cancer. Material & methods: This study was a prospectivestudy in 45 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer in Sardjito General hospital. Patient characteristics and patient clinical data were recorded. Paraffin blocks of 45 patient surgery results were performed with immunohistochemical staining with monoclonal antibody of anti ALDH1A1 (EP1933Y, Biocare, dilution 1: 200). ALDH1 expression differences between prostate cancer without metastases and prostate cancer with metastasis was compared and analyzed with Chi-square. Results: This study involved 45 prostate cancer patients with median of age of 74 years. A high Gleason scores was found in 25 (55.6%) patients with prostate cancer and 24 (53.3%) patients had metastasis to the bone. The high expression of ALDH1 was found in 30 (66.7%) patients. The incidence of bone metastasis in patients with prostate cancer was associated with high levels of ALDH1 (p < 0.001, OR, 95% CI 17.88 (3.28-97.83) and was not associated with Gleason score (p = 0.316). Conclusion: Prostate cancer cells with high ALDH1A1 level increased the risk of the incidence of bone metastasis. ALDH1A1 level in prostate cancer cells can be considered as a predictor factor of the bone metastasis in prostate cancer.



Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1A1, prostate cancer, bone metastasis


Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, Forman D, Mathers C, Parkin DM. GLOBOCAN, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC Cancer Base No. 10. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2012.

Cookson MS, Aus G, Burnett AL. Variation in the definition of biochemical recurrence in patients treated for localized prostate cancer: the American Urological Association Prostate Guidelines for Localized Prostate Cancer Update Panel report and recommendations for a standard in the reporting of surgical outcomes. J Urol. 2007; 177: 540–5.

Van Den Hoogen C, Van Der Horst G, Cheung H, Buijs JT, Lippitt JM, Guzman-Ramirez N, et al. High aldehyde dehydrogenase activity identifies tumor-initiating and metastasis-initiating cells in human prostate cancer Cancer Research. 2010; 70: 5163-73.

Collins AT, Berry PA, Hyde C, Stower MJ, Maitland NJ. Prospective identification of tumorigenic prostate cancer stem cells. Cancer Res. 2005; 65: 10946–51.

Li T, Su Y, Mei Y, Leng Q, Leng B, Liu Z, et al. ALDH1A1 is a marker for malignant prostate stem cells and predictor of prostate cancer patients' outcome. Lab Invest. 2009; 90: 234-44.

Patrawala L, Calhoun T, Schneider-Broussard R. Highly purified CD44(+) prostate cancer cells from xenograft human tumors are enriched in tumorigenic and metastatic progenitor cells. Oncogene. 2006; 25: 1696–708.

Magni M, Shammah S, Schiro R, Mellado W, Dalla-Favera R, Gianni AM. Induction of cyclophosphamide-resistance by aldehyde-dehydrogenase gene transfer. Blood. 1996; 87: 1097–103.

Yoshida A, Rzhetsky A, Hsu LC, Chang C. Human aldehyde dehydrogenase gene family. Eur J Biochem. 1998; 251: 549–57.

Duester G. Families of retinoid dehydrogenases regulating vitamin A function: production of visual pigment and retinoic acid. Eur J Biochem. 2000; 267: 4315–24.

Chute JP, Muramoto GG, Whitesides J, Colvin M, Safi R, Chao NJ, et al. Inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase and retinoid signaling induces the expansion of human hematopoietic stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2006; 31: 11707–12.

Huang EH, Hynes MJ, Zhang T. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 is a marker for normal and malignant human colonic stem cells (SC) and tracks SC overpopulation during colon tumorigenesis. Cancer Res. 2009; 69: 3382–9.

Pearce DJ, Taussig D, Simpson C, Allen K, Rohatiner AZ, Lister TA, et al. Characterization of cells with a high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity from cord blood and acute myeloid leukemia samples. Stem Cells. 2005; 23: 752–60.

Ucar D, Cogle CR, Zucali JR. Aldehyde dehydrogenase activity as a functional marker for lung cancer. Chem Biol Interact. 2009; 178: 48–55.

Sla´dek NE, Kollander R, Sreerama L, Kiang DT. Cellular levels of aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1) as predictors of therapeutic responses to cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy of breast cancer: a retrospective study. Rational individualization of oxazaphosphorine-based cancer chemotherap. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2002; 49: 309–321.

Le Magnen C, Bubendorf L, Rentsch CA, Mengus C, Gsponer J, Zellweger T, et al. Characterization and clinical relevance of ALDH bright populations in prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2013; 19(19): 5361–71.

Copyright Information
Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine/Airlangga University