Abu Surur Suwandi Sugandi Zulhardi Haroen Bambang S Noegroho Tjahdjojati Tjahjodjati Ferry Safriadi Safendra Siregar Ricky Adriansjah Kuncoro Adi Betthy S Hernowo


Objective: To evaluate the effect of estrogen on wistar’s vaginal epithelium. Material & method: We divided 30 female wistars into three groups, ten wistars underwent bilateral ovariectomy, 10 wistars underwent bilateral ovariectomy, and estrogen replacement and 10 wistars as control. The second group received estradiol 1 mg/kg/day, directly after ovariectomy. After 4 weeks the vagina was then harvested and stained with hematoxylin-eosin to evaluate the thickness of epithelial layer of vagina. A pair T-test was use for statistical analysis. Results: Estrogen ablation decreased the thickness of epithelial layer in wistar’s vagina. The mean thickness of epithelial layer in vagina were 3, 5, and 10 for each group respectively. The mean epithelial layer of the first group as well as the second group showed significant difference compared to control group (p>0,05), while the first group showed insignificant difference compared to the second group. Conclusion: Estrogen ablation seems to decrease the thickness of vaginal epithelium, while estrogen replacement revealed insignificant effect.



Estrogen, vaginal epithelium, epithelial layer, estrogen replacement therapy, lower urinary tract symptoms


Mary P. FitzGerald. Anatomic and functional changes of the lower urinary tract during pregnancy. Loyola University Medical Center. Urol Clin N Am 2007; 34: 7-12.

Zuckerman S. Morphological and functional homologies of the male and female reproductive system. Br Med J 1936; 2: 864-5.

Clarke JH, Peck EJ Jr, Hardin JW, Eriksson H. Biology and pharmacology of estrogen receptors: relation to physiological response. In: O'Malley BW, Birnbaumer L, eds. Receptors and Hormone Action. New York: Academic Press; 1978. p. 1-31.

Batra S, Andersson KE. Estrogen-induced changes in muscarinic receptor density and contractile responses in the female rabbit urinary bladder. Acta Physiol Scand 1989; 137: 135.

Batra SC, Iosif CS. Female urethra: A target for estrogen action. J Urol 1983; 129: 418.

EkstroÈm J, Iosif CS, Malmberg L. Effects of long-term treatment with estrogen and progesterone on in vitro muscle responses of the female rabbit urinary bladder and urethra to autonomic drugs and nerve stimulation. J Urol 1993; 150: 1284.

Fantl JA, Cardozo LD, Ekberg J, McClish DK, Heimer G. Estrogen therapy in the management of urinary incontinence in postmenopausal women. A Meta-Analysis. Obstet Gynecol 1994; 83: 12.

Hodgson BJ, Dumas S, Bolling DR, Heesch CM. Effect of estrogen on sensitivity of rabbit bladder and urethra to phenylephrine. Invest Urol 1978; 16: 67.

Hundley JMJ, Siegel IA, Hachtel FW. Some physiological and pathological observations on the urinary tract during pregnancy. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1938; 66: 360–79.

Francis WJA. Disturbances of bladder function in relation to pregnancy. J Obstet Gynecol Br Empire 1960; 67: 353–66.

July 2010 Vol. 17 No. 2
Copyright Information
Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine/Airlangga University