Published 2015-10-01
Ari Astram Ponco Birowo Nur Rasyid P Pryambodho C Susilo


Objective: The purpose of this study compared the outcome of PCNL under general and spinal anesthesia for the outcome. Material & Methods: PCNL had been performed from 2000 until 2011 with total 760 PCNL divided into 220 PCNL using general anesthesia (Group A) and the remaining 540 PCNL using spinal anesthesia (Group B) The data of both groups were evaluated with Chi square test, and Mann-Whitney test. Result: Stone free rate in Group A was 71.37% similar with Group B 72.97% (p > 0.05). Spinal anesthesia was used more often in patient who had previous surgery 65.5% compared with general anesthesia 36.82% (p < 0.05). The average surgery duration in Group A was longer than group B (77.10 ± 35.59 minutes vs 68.42 ± 30.55 minutes) (p < 0.05). The average length of hospital stay in Group B was shorter than Group A (3.90 ± 2.72 days vs 5.47 ± 4.25 days) (p < 0.05). There was no difference between Group A and Group B in complication and the needs of tranfusion. Conclusion: PCNL under spinal anesthsia was feasible and safe even better in the shorter surgery duration and the length of hospital stay.



Percutaneous nephrolitotomy, spinal anesthesia, general anesthesia


Matlaga B, Lingeman J. In: Kavoussi L, Partin A, Novick A, Peters C, editors. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 10thed. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. p. 1354-407.

Matlaga BR, Kim SC, Lingeman JE. Improving outcomes of percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Access. EAU Update Series. 2005; 3: 37–43.

Preminger GM, Clayman RV, Hardeman SW. Percutaneous nephrostolithotomy vs open surgery for renal calculi: A comparative study. JAMA. 1985; 254: 1054–8.

Wong MY. Evolving technique of percutaneous nephrolitotomy in a developing country: Singapore general hospital experience. J Endourol. 1998; 12: 297-401.

Basiri A, Mehrabi S, Kianian H, Javaherforooshzadeh. Blind puncture in comparison with fluoroscopic guideance in percutaneous nephrolitotomy: a radomized control trial. Uro J. 2007; 4: 79-83.

Segura JW, Preminger GM, Assimos DG. Nephrolithiasis Clinical Guidelines panes summary report on the management of staghorn calculi. Urol J. 1994; 151: 1648.

Desai M, Grover R, Manohar T. Simultaneous bilateral percutaneous nephrolitotomy: A single centre experience. J Endourol. 2005; 21: 508-9.

Feng MI, Tamaddon K, Mikhail A. Prospective randomised study of various techniques of percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Urology. 2001; 58: 345–50.

Tangpaitoon T, Nisoog C, Lojanapiwat B. Efficacy and Safety of percutaneous nephrolitotomy (PCNL): a prospective and randomized study comparing regional epidural anesthesia with general anesthesia. Int Braz J Urol. 2012; 38: 504-11.

Corbel L, Guille F, Cipolla B, Staerman F. Percutaneous surgery for lithiasis: result and perspectives. Apropos of 390 operations. Prog Urol.1993; 3: 658-65.

Rozentsveig V, Neulander E, Roussabrov. Anesthetic consideration during percutaneous nephrolitotomy. J Clin Anesth. 2007; 19: 351-5.

Rasyid N, Birowo P, Pryambodho P. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Using Spinal Anesthesia: Safety and Efficacy. Eur Urol. 2010; 9(2): 136.

Kuzgunbay B,Turunc T, Akin S, Ergenoglu. Percutaneous Nephrolitotomy under general versus combined spinal-epidural anesthesia. J Endourol. 2009; 23: 1835-8.

Borzouei B, Bahar SHM. Result of percutaneous nephrolitotomy under spinal anesthesia. International Journal of Medical and Biological Sciences. 2012; 6.

Copyright Information
Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine/Airlangga University