Objectives: To demonstrate that intratesticular injection of 20% hypertonic sodium chloride can result in permanent castration and to evaluate serum changes in sodium chloride levels. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, consisting of bilateral orchidectomy (n=10), control (n=10) and 2 groups receiving intratesticular injections of 20% sodium chloride (n=10 in each group). Serum testosterone was measured on day 0, day 1, day 15 and day 30. Serum sodium chloride was assessed before injection, at 1 hour and 24 hours after injection. All testicles were harvested for histological examination. One way ANOVA and student t-test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Serum testosterone decreased to castrate levels in the orchidectomy and injected groups with no significant difference (p>0,05). Significant rise in serum sodium chloride was found 1 hour post injection (p<0,05) but after 1 day it decreased significantly (p<0,05). There was no significant difference in histopathological findings between the 2 injected groups after day 15 and 30 (p>0,05). Conclusion: Twenty percent hypertonic chloride injection has the same permanent castration effect with bilateral orchidectomy in rats. The serum sodium chloride changes did not reach the lethal level for rats. Therefore this treatment has a promising potential as a novel and cost-effective castration method with the additional benefit of retaining both testes.
hypertonic sodium chloride, castration, prostate cancer, intratesticular injection
Nelson JB. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer. In: Walsh PC, Retik AB, Vaughan ED, Wein AJ, editors. Campbell Urology. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2007. p. 2627-36.
Desmond. Subcapsular orchiectomy under local anaesthesia. Techniques, Results and Implications. Br J Urol 1988; 61: 143-5.
Lin BJ, Chen KK, Chen MT. The time for serum testosterone to reach castrate level after bilateral orchiectomy or oral estrogens in the management of metastatic prostatic cancer. J Urol 1994; 43: 834 –7.
Auclair C, Kelly PA, Labrie F. Inhibition of testicular luteinizing hormone receptor level by treatment with a potent LHRH agonist or human chorionic gonadotropin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1977; 76: 855–62.
Holtgrewe HL, Lukacs B, Nielsen P. The economics of prostate cancer. In: Murphy G, Partin A, Khoury S, Denis L. International Consultation on Prostate Cancer. 2nd Ed. Plymouth, UK: Plymbridge Distributors; 2000. p. 497-514.
Emir L. Chemical castration with intratesticular injection of 20% hypertonic NaCl: A minimally invasive method. 2008; 26: 392–6.
Norma M. Fluid and electrolyte balance. 4th Edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publishers; 2000. p. 78-80.
Petersen B, Khanna S, Fisher B, Marshall L. Prolonged hypernatremia controls elevated intracranial pressure in head-injured pediatric patients. Crit Care Med 2000; 28: 1136-43.
Narayana VM, Lew SQ, Kimmel PL. Persistent hyponatremia ameliorated by discontinuation of hypertonic saline administration. Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC. The Journal of Applied Research; 2004: 4 (2).
Sudiono J, Kurniadi B, Hendrawan A, Djimantoro B. Ilmu Patologi. Penerbit Buku Kedokteran EGC; 2003. p. 3-15.