Published 2020-01-22
Bangun Oktavian Hariyoto Doddy M Soebadi Soetojo Soetojo Bambang Soeprijanto


Objective: To analyze the differences of sperm motility and viability changes in Wistar Rats that exposed to X-ray radiation compared to Wistar Rats that were not exposed to X-ray radiation. Material and Methods: Experimental laboratory research within vivo design using Wistar strain rats as subjects. There are three treatment groups in this study: rats exposed to 50 mGy X-ray radiation, 100 mGy, and 200 mGy and one untreated control group. Radiation exposure was calibrated using the RTI Piranha dosimetry. After radiation exposure, at week 4, orchidectomy was performed in rats. Sperm analysis was carried out to determine sperm motility by direct observation and sperm viability by Hematoxylin Eosin (HE) staining observations using a light microscope. One Way ANOVA was used to compare motility and viability of rats spermatozoa in the treatment group compared to control group with a significant value of p<0.05. The analysis was continued with a Post Hoc test to determine the differences in each group. Results: The percentage of motile sperm decreased in all treatment groups compared to control group (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in mean sperm motility on rats exposed to 200 mGy X-ray radiation compared to 100 mGy X-ray radiation (p>0.05). Viability counts decreased in all treatment groups compared to control group (p<0.05) and the spermatozoa viability in 200 mGy radiation group was not significantly different from 100 mGy group (p>0.05). Conclusion: X-ray radiation exposure decreases sperm motility and viability in Wistar rats with the optimum doses 100 mGy.



X-Ray, Radiation, sperm motility, sperm viability


Seibert JA. X-Ray imaging physics for nuclear medicine technologists. Part 1: Basic Principles of X-Ray Production. 2004; 139-48.

Z A. Effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation on humans. Bul Al. 2004; 5(203): 99-112.

Ahmad G. Ionizing radiation and male fertility. 2017.

Kovac JR, Khanna A, Lipshultz LI, Endocrinology MR. The effects of cigarette smoking on male fertility. Postgr Med. 2015; 127(3): 338-41.

Grosovsky AJ, Boer JGDE, Jongt PJDE, Drobetsky EA, Glickman BW. Base substitutions, frameshifts, and small deletions constitute ionizing radiation-induced point mutations in mammalian cells. 1988; 85 (January): 185-8.

Kumar D, copy of a SR, Kalthur G, Uppangala S, S. Kumari. Abnormalities semen, sperm DNA damage and global hypermethylation in health workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. 2013; 8(7): 1-8.

IP Oyeyipo, Raji Y, Emikpe BO. Effects of oral administration of nicotine on organ weight, serum testosterone levels and testicular histology in adult male rats. 2010; 25: 81-6.

IP Oyeyipo, Raji Y, Emikpe BO, Bolarinwa AF. Effects of nicotine on sperm characteristics and fertility profile in adult male rats: A Possible Role of Cessation. 2011; 12(3): 201-7.

Ko S, Kang S, Ha M, Kim J, June JK. Health Effects of occupational radiation exposure from among fluoroscopy-guided interventional medical workers: A Systematic Review. J Vasc interv Radiol. 2018; 29(3): 353-366.

Krille L, Hammer GP, Merzenich H, Zeeb H. Systematic review on physician 's knowledge about radiation doses and radiation risks of computed tomography. Eur J Radiol. 2010; 76(1): 36-41.

Wall BF, Kendall GM, Meara JR. What are the risks from medical X-rays and low dose of radiation? 2006; 79 (April): 285-94.

Saleh RA, Agarwal A. Oxidative stress and male infertility: From Research Bench to Clinical Practice. 2002; 23(6).

Pogribny IP, Beland ÆFA. DNA hypomethylation in the origin and pathogenesis ofhuman diseases. 2009; 2249-61.

Aypar U, Morgan WF, Baulch JE. Mutation research / fundamental and molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis radiation-induced epigenetic alterations after low and high LET irradiations. Mutat Res - Fundam Mol Mutagen Mech. 2011; 707(1-2): 24-33.

Cui X, X Jing, Wu X, Yan M, Li Q, Shen YAN, et al. DNA methylation in spermatogenesis and male infertility (Review). 2016; 1973-9.

Yauk C, Polyzos A Rowan-carroll A, Somers CM, Godschalk RW, Van Schooten FJ, et al. Germ-line mutations, DNA damage, and global hypermethylation in rats exposed to particulate air pollution in an urban / industrial location. 2008; 105(2): 605-10.

Adiga SK, Ph D, Upadhya D, M Sc, Kalthur G, Ph D, et al. Transgenerational changes in somatic and germ line genetic integrity of first-generation offspring derived from the DNA damaged sperm. Fertil Steril. 2010; 93(8): 2486-90.

Borini A, Tarozzi N, Bizzaro D, Bonu MA, Fava L, Flamigni C, et al. Sperm DNA fragmentation: paternal effect on early post-implantation embryo development in ART. 2006; 21(11): 2876-81.

Copyright Information
Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine/Airlangga University