A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW: THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN URINE LEUKOCYTES AND THE TYPES OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.sidebar##

PDF
Published 2022-01-11
Joshua Sunjaya Sheella Rima Bororing Maria Riastuti Iryaningrum

Abstract

Objective: This study aimed to determine the functional role of the urine leukocyte count on type of UTI. Material & Methods: This is a systematic review study with searches for articles from 2010-2020 through the PubMed, ProQuest, and EBSCO databases. The exclusion criteria in this study are patients using catheters (CAUTI), UTI patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), and pediatric or infant patients. There were 1158 studies found and 3 studies synthesized. Results: There are 1130 patients studied. Age range from 18 to 89.1 years. Three studies showed that there was an association between the number of urinary leukocytes and the type of UTI (Tommaso Cai et al., p < 0.0001; and Alexander R. Levine et al., p < 0.001) and one study had no relationship. Conclusion: There is a relationship between the number of urinary leukocytes with the type of UTI. An increase in the number of urinary leukocytes above the normal limit is the sign of body’s immune response to eliminate uropathogens. The innate immune characteristic factors and the body’s immune response have an important role in causing symptoms in UTI patients.


##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

Keywords

Urine leukocytes, leukocyturia, pyuria, asymptomatic urinary tract infection, symptomatic urinary tract infection

References

Bladder Infection (Urinary Tract Infection) in Adults. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/urologic-diseases/bladder-infection-uti-in-adults/all-content. (accessed Aug 24, 2019).

Urinary tract infection (UTI) - Symptoms and causes. Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/urinary-tract-infection/symptoms-causes/syc-20353447. (accessed Aug 24, 2019).

Wei Tan C, Chlebicki MP. Urinary tract infections in adults. Singapore Med J. 2016 Sep; 57(9): 485–90.

WHO Country Health Profile 2012 : Indonesia. WHO; 2012. https://www.who.int/gho/countries/idn.pdf?ua=1.

Flores-Mireles AL, Walker JN, Caparon M, Hultgren SJ. Urinary tract infections: epidemiology, mechanisms of infection and treatment options. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2015 May; 13(5): 269–84.

Ministry of Health Singapore. Urinary Tract Infection. https://www.healthhub.sg/a-z/diseases-and-conditions/210/urinarytractinfection. (accessed Aug 24, 2019).

Niska R, Bhuiya F, Xu J. National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2007 Emergency Department Summary. American Psychological Association; 2010. http://doi.apa.org/get-pe-doi.cfm?doi=10.1037/e587172010-001. (accessed Aug 31, 2019).

Franco AVM. Recurrent urinary tract infections. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2005 Dec; 19(6): 861–73.

Longo D, Fauci A, Kasper D, Hauser S, Jameson J, Loscalzo J. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine 19th Edition. 19th ed. McGraw-Hill Professional; 2015. p. 861–8.

Nicolle LE, Gupta K, Bradley SF, Colgan R, DeMuri GP, Drekonja D, et al. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria: 2019 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of Americaa. Clin Infect Dis. https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cid/ciy1121/5407612. (accessed Oct 2, 2019).

Detweiler K, Mayers D, Fletcher SG. Bacteruria and Urinary Tract Infections in the Elderly. Urol Clin North Am. 2015 Nov; 42(4): 561–8.

E. Geerlings S. Clinical Presentations and Epidemiology of Urinary Tract Infections. Microbiol Spectr. http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0002-2012. (accessed Sep 25, 2019).

Foxman B, Gillespie B, Koopman J, Zhang L, Palin K, Tallman P, et al. Risk Factors for Second Urinary Tract Infection among College Women. Am J Epidemiol. 2000 Jun 15; 151(12): 1194–205.

Colgan R, Williams M, Johnson JR. Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Pyelonephritis in Women. Am Fam Physician. 2011 Sep 1; 84(5): 519–26.

Foxman B. Urinary Tract Infection Syndromes. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2014 Mar; 28(1): 1–13.

Infeksi saluran kemih | ICHRC. http://www.ichrc.org/68-infeksi-saluran-kemih. (accessed Aug 24, 2019).

Masajtis-Zagajewska A, Nowicki M. New markers of urinary tract infection. Clin Chim Acta. 2017 Aug; 471: 286–91.

Subcommittee on Urinary Tract Infection, Steering Committee on Quality Improvement and Management. Urinary Tract Infection: Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of the Initial UTI in Febrile Infants and Children 2 to 24 Months. PEDIATRICS. 2011 Sep 1; 128(3): 595–610.

J. Wein A, R. Kavoussi L, C. Novick A, W. Partin A, A. Peters C. Campbell-Walsh Urology Tenth Edition. 10th Edition. Vol. 1. Elsevier Saunders; 2012.

Kefarmasian DP. Pedoman Interpretasi Data Klinik | Direktorat Jenderal Kefarmasian dan Alat Kesehatan Kementerian Kesehatan RI. 2011. http://farmalkes.kemkes.go.id/2014/12/pedoman-interpretasi-data-klinik/

Lembar S, Indrawasih B, Nadesul B, Rima Bororing S, Dony Y, Aprilia A. Penuntun Praktikum : Urinalisis dan Pemeriksaan Cairan Tubuh. Departemen Patologi Klinik Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya.

Smelov V, Naber K, Bjerklund Johansen TE. Improved Classification of Urinary Tract Infection: Future Considerations. Eur Urol Suppl. 2016 Jul; 15(4): 71–80.

Naid T, Mangerangi F, Arsyad M. Pengaruh Volume Urin Terhadap Pemeriksaan Sedimen Urin Pada Pasien Infeksi Saluran Kemih (ISK). -Syifaa J Farm. 2015 Jul 1; 7(1): 1–9.

Karisma RC. Bakteri dan Leukosit dalam Urin Ibu Hamil yang Bekerja di Pabrik Rokok. Wijaya Kusuma Malang J. 2017 Oct 26; 1(2): 1–5.

Putra KA. Gambaran Temuan Leukosituria pada Pasien Diabetes Mellitus di Rumah Sakit Umum Kota Tangerang Selatan Periode Januari-Juni Tahun 2013. http://repository.uinjkt.ac.id/dspace/handle/123456789/26366. (accessed Oct 6, 2019).

Hasanah N. Evaluasi Leukosituria pada Tersangka ISK di RSUD Cengkareng Periode Juli – Desember 2014. http://repository.uinjkt.ac.id/dspace/handle/123456789/29544. (accessed Oct 6, 2019).

Alpay Y, Aykın N, Korkmaz P, Güldüren HM, Çevik Çağlan F. Urinary tract infections in the geriatric patients. Pak J Med Sci. 2018; 34(1).

Meylin PS. Gambaran Hasil Pemeriksaan Urine Pada Pasien Infeksi Saluran Kemih di RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang. Universitas Andalas. http://scholar.unand.ac.id/25269/. (accessed Oct 6, 2019).

Kwon YE, Oh D-J, Kim MJ, Choi HM. Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Asymptomatic Pyuria in Chronic Kidney Disease. Ann Lab Med. 2020; 40(3): 238.

Cai T, Lanzafame P, Caciagli P, Migno S, Mereu L. Role of increasing leukocyturia for Detecting the transition from asymptomatic bacteriuria to symptomatic infection in women with recurrent urinary tract infections: A new tool for improving antibiotic stewardship. Int J Urol. 2018; 1–7.

Marschall J, Piccirillo ML, Foxman B, Zhang L, Warren DK, Henderson JP. Patient characteristics but not virulence factors discriminate between symptomatic and symptomatic E. coli bacteriuria in the hospital. BMC Infect Dis. 2013; 13(213): 1–7.

Levine AR, Tran M, Shepherd J, Naut E. Utility of initial procalcitonin values to predict urinary tract infection. Am J Emerg Med. 2018 Mar 2; 36: 1993–7.

Section
Articles
Copyright Information
Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine/Airlangga University