Published 2017-03-16
Sonny Andikha Wardhana Moh. Ayodhia Soebadi Sunaryo hardjowijoto


Objectives: We analyze our data of patients with urinary retention that have been managed in Soetomo general hospital to know our prevalence, causes and its management. Material & methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of the patients with urinary retention who admitted on our department between January 2011 and December 2012.  Results: During 2 years between January 2011 until December 2012, a total number of urinary retention was 295 cases among 1282 urology emergency cases, with sex ratio of urinary retention in men and women was 85.7% : 14.3%. Of the study population 264 (89.5%) presented with acute urine retention while 31 (10.5%) had chronic urine retention. Most of urinary retention was caused by bladder stone (33.3%) in children, urethral stricture (26.8%) in young adult men, BPH (71.3%) in elder men and cystitis (26.3%) in women. Trial of voiding without catheter (TWOC) that performed in 60 of the BPH patients, was succeeded in 43 (71.6%) of the patients and failed in 17 (28.4%). Emergency treatment of urinary retention were urethral catheter (83.7%) and cystostomy (16.3%). Conclusion: Urinary retention is one of emergency in urology that most common occur in men. Urine retention found among the participants was mainly AUR rather than CUR. Most of urinary retention was caused by bladder stone in children, urethral stricture in young adult men, BPE in elder men and cystitis in women. The most emergency management was urethral catheter. Trial of voiding without catheter showed a high success rate, so it can be considered as definitive non-surgical therapy in selective patient.



Urinary retention, urethral catheter, cystostomy, trial of voiding without catheter


Gardjito W. Retensi Urin permasalahan dan penatalaksanaannya. JURI. 1994; 4(2): 18-26.

Abrams P, Cardozo L, Fall M. Standardisation Sub-committee of the International Continence Society. The standardisation of terminology of lower urinary tract function: Report from the Standardisation Sub-committee of the International Continence Society. Neurourol Urodyn. 2002; 2: 167–78.

Abrams PH, Dunn M, George N. Urodynamic findings in chronic retention of urine and their relevance to results of surgery. Br Med J. 1978; 2: 1258–60.

Negro CLA, Muir GH. Chronic urinary retention in men: How we define it, and how does it affect treatment outcome. Br J Urol. 2012; 110: 1590-4.

Selius BA, R Subedi. Urinary retention in adults: Diagnosis and initial management. Am Fam Physician. 2008; 77(5): 643-50.

Van Vuuren SPJ, Zarrabi AD. Comparison of men with acute versus chronic urinary retention: Aetiology, clinical features and complications. S Afr Fam Pract. 2011; 53(6): 590-4.

Kalejaiye Odunayo, MJ Speakman. Management of acute and chronic retention in men. Eur Urol. 2009; suppl 8: 523-9.

Soetojo. Description of urinary retention in women: A retrospective study in Dr. Soetomo Hospital Surabaya. Folia Medica Indonesiana. 2007; 43(1): 44-48.

Emberton M, Fitzpatrick J. The Reten-World survey of the management of acute urinary retention: preliminary results. BJU Int. 2008; 101(Suppl 3): 27–32.

Ghalayini IF, Al-Ghazo MA, Pickard RS. A prospective randomized trial comparing transurethral prostatic resection and clean intermittent self-catheterization in men with chronic urinary retention. BJU Int. 2005; 96: 93–7.

George N, O’Reilly P, Barnard R, Blacklock N. High pressure chronic retention. BMJ. 1983; 286: 1780–3.

Mahadik P, Vaddi SP, Godala CM, Reddy VVK, Sambar VK. Factors affecting trial without catheter for first spontaneous acute urinary retention. Int Neurourol J. 2013; 17: 121-6.

Van der walt CLE, van Vuuren SJ, Heyns CF. Urinary retention in women: Causes and management. Afr J Urol. 2010; 16(1): 7-11.

Asgari SA, Ghanaie MM, Simforosh N, Kajbafzadeh A, Zare A. Acute urinary retention in children. Urology Journal. 2005; 2(1): 23-27.

McCurrich HJ. Retention of urine. Br Med J. 1930; 1(3610): 517.

Hassouna M, Abdelhady M. Acute urinary retention in the eldery. Business Brief: US Kidney and Urological Disease; 2005. p. 1-5.

Speakman MJ. Lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH): More than treating symptoms? Eur Urol Suppl. 2008; 7(11): 680–9.

Newman DK. Prevention and management of catheter associated UTIs. Infetious Disease Special Edition. E Journal; September 2010. p. 13-20.

Mitchell JP. Management if chronic urinary retention. Br Med J. 1984; 289: 515-6.

Takeda K, Harada A, Hirakata H, Fujimi S, Oh Y, Fujishima M. Three year outcome after urinary diversion in patients with obstructive uropathy. Nephron. 1998; 78: 246-8.

Tuncel A, Uzun B, Eruyar T, Karabulut E, Seckin S, Atan A. Do prostatic infarction, prostatic inflammation and prostate morphology play a role in acute urinary retention? Eur Urol. 2005; 48: 277–84.

McNeill SA, Hagreave TB. Efficacy of PSA in the detection of carcinoma of the prostate in patients presenting with acute urinary retention. J R Coll Surg Edinb. 2000; 45(4): 227-30.

Park K, Kim SH, Ahn SG, Lee SJ, Ha US, Koh JS, et al. Analysis of the treatment of two types of acute urinary retention. Korean J Urol. 2012; 53: 843-7.

Fitzpatrick JM, Desgrandchamps F, Adjali K, Guerra LG, Hong SJ, El Khalid S, et al. Management of acute urinary retention: A worldwide survey of 6074 men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. BJU Int. 2011; 109: 88-89.

Daly P, Connolly S, Rogers E. Management outcome of acute urinary retention: Model of prediction. Urol Int. 2009; 83(1): 39-43.

Copyright Information
Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine/Airlangga University