Objective: Obstruction of the urinary tract has marked effects on renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and tubular function. Ureteral obstruction results in an injury response that can progress to irreversible renal fibrosis and tubular damage by apoptosis. Materials and Methods: Forty five rabbits aged 13-17 weeks with body weights of 1250-1750 grams were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 underwent a sham operation and group 2 had unilateral ureteral ligation to cause total obstruction. Groups 3 and 4 also underwent unilateral ureteral ligation but with verapamil given on day 0 and day 7 respectively. Apoptosis to the renal tubules were assessed after nephrectomy on day 14 using immunohistochemistry by counting the number cell deaths/high power field (hpf). Results: The groups that received verapamil showed significantly less apoptosis compared to those without verapamil (2,73 vs 12,46 cell deaths/hpf; p<0,05). However, there was no significant difference between groups 3 and 4 (2,73 vs 2,89 cell deaths/hpf; p>0,05), although both groups still showed more cell deaths compared to group 1 (0,38 cell deaths/hpf). Conclusion: Verapamil appears to significantly decrease apoptosis during total unilateral ureteral obstruction. However, it cannot replace the benefit of relieving total obstruction
Hegarty NJ, Watson WJ, Fitzpatrick JM. Upper urinary tract obstruction, In: Mundy AR et al. eds. Scientific Basis of Urology. Oxford: Isis Medical Ltd; 2001. p. 91-111.
O’Reilly PH. Upper tract obstruction, In: Weiss RM, George JR, O’Reilly PH, eds. Comprehensive Urology. London: Mosby; 2001. p. 333-45.
Ashkenazi A, Dixit VM. Death receptors: Signaling and modulation. Science; 1998. p. 1305-8.
Chevalier RL, Goyal S, Thornhill BA. EGF improves recovery following relief of unilateral ureteral obstruction in the neonatal rat. American Urological Association, Inc. J Urol 1999; 162 (4): 1532-6.
Daryanto B. Pengaruh Obstruksi Ureter Buatan Terhadap Kejadian Apoptosis Sel Tubulus Ginjal Pada Oryctolagus Cuniculus Penelitian eksperimental laboratoris. Karya Tulis Akhir. Bagian Urologi Fak. Kedokteran Unair; 2005.
Power RE, Doyle BT, Higgins D, Brady HR, Fitzpatrick JM. Mechanical deformation induced apoptosis in human proximal renal tubular epithelial cells is caspase dependent. American Urological Association, Inc. J Urol 2004; 171 (1): 457-61.
Choi JS, Burm JP. Pharmacokineticks of verapamil and its major metabolite, norverapamil from oral administration of verapamil in rabbits with hepatic failure induced by carbon tetrachloride. Arch Pharm Res 2005; 28 (4): 483-7.
Topcu SU, Celik S, Erturhan S, Erbagci A, Yagci H. Verapamil prevents the apoptotic and hemodynamic changes in response to unilateral ureteral obstruction. The Japanese Urological Association, Inc. International Journal of Urology 2008; 15: 350-5.
Balai Pengujian Mutu dan Sertifikasi Obat Hewan. Petunjuk teknis pemeliharaan hewan percobaan untuk pengujian mutu obat hewan. Direktorat Jenderal Peternakan Departemen Pertanian Republik Indonesia;1989. p. 16-26.
Nguyen H, Wu H, Baskin L, Kogan B. High urinary flow accelerates renal injury in young rats with partial unilateral ureteral obstruction. American Urological Association, Inc. J urol 2000; 163 (6): 1904-7.
Young LS. Upper urinary tract obstruction, In: Mundy AR et al. eds. Scientific Basis of Urology. Oxford: Isis Medical Media Ltd; 1999. p. 113-2.